Do dinoflagellates cause shellfish poisoning?

Do dinoflagellates cause shellfish poisoning?

At least four different species of the toxic dinoflagellates cause shellfish and fish poisoning in the United States: Ptychodiscus brevis, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning; Protogonyaulax catenella and P tamarensis, paralytic shellfish poisoning; and Gambierdiscus toxicus, ciguatera fish poisoning.

What organism causes diarrhetic shellfish poisoning?

Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison (DSP) is a marine biotoxin toxin produced by the dinoflagellate Dinophysis, which is a type of naturally occurring microscopic algae. Shellfish eat these algae and can retain the toxin.

What happens to shellfish that eat the dinoflagellates?

Shellfish consume dinoflagellate organisms while feeding, and the poison is stored in their bodies. This toxin has been found in these seafoods every month of the year, and butter clams have been known to store the toxin for up to 2 years.

What poison is made by dinoflagellates?

Neurotoxic paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are produced in the marine environment mainly by dinoflagellates of three genera associated with harmful algal blooms (HABs). These include about a dozen species of Alexandrium, a single species of Gymnodinium (G. catenatum) and a single species of Pyrodinium (P. bahamense).

What is shellfish poisoning?

Paralytic shellfish poisoning occurs from ingesting bivalve shellfish (such as mussels, oysters, and clams) that contain toxins. These toxins can cause severe and life-threatening neurological effects. Shellfish harvested in BC coastal waters can sometimes be contaminated with this toxin.

What causes DSP?

Diarrhoeic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) in humans is caused by the ingestion of contaminated bivalves such as mussels, scallops, oysters or clams. The fat soluble DSP toxins accumulate in the fatty tissue of the bivalves.

What causes shellfish poisoning?

Causes. Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused from the ingestion of toxin-contaminated bivalve shellfish and crustaceans. Algal blooms of dinoflagellates, usually during the warmer months of June to October, result in toxin accumulation in filter feeders such as bivalves.

What do dinoflagellates do to humans?

Dinoflagellates produce two types of toxins. One causes respiratory paralysis (paralytic poisoning) and the other causes gastrointestinal problems (diarrheic poisoning).

Where is diarrhetic shellfish poisoning most common?

U.S. Finfish and Shellfish Vectors of DSP

Geographic Area Affected Organisms*
NE Atlantic Coast Washington California Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Maine Mussels Scallops Clams Oysters

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