How does antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?

How does antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?

Figure 1: Antibiotics interfere with multiple stages of protein synthesis. Tetracyclines bind reversibly to the 30S ribosomal subunit at a position that blocks the binding of the tRNA to the acceptor site on the mRNA-ribosome complex.

Which antibiotics act by inhibition of protein synthesis?

Protein synthesis inhibitors represent another major group of clinically useful antibacterials, such as erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and aminoglycosides.

What happens when antibiotics inhibit protein synthesis?

Most inhibitors of protein synthesis are bacteriostatic , so proper protein synthesis can resume once the antibiotic is removed. Thus the effect of these antibiotics is to prevent growth of the bacteria. However, aminoglycosides , which are also inhibitors of protein synthesis, are bactericidal .

Why do antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis only affect bacterial cells?

Systemic antibiotics are only effective against bacterial cells because they only target components found exclusively in cell walls. Because there are variations in the way different groups of bacteria construct their cell walls, antibiotics can be designed to selectively target specific species.

How does aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis?

Aminoglycosides inhibit protein synthesis by binding, with high affinity, to the A-site on the 16S ribosomal RNA of the 30S ribosome (Kotra et al. 2000). Although aminoglycoside class members have a different specificity for different regions on the A-site, all alter its conformation.

How do antibiotics inhibit the growth of bacteria?

Many antibiotics, including penicillin, work by attacking the cell wall of bacteria. Specifically, the drugs prevent the bacteria from synthesizing a molecule in the cell wall called peptidoglycan, which provides the wall with the strength it needs to survive in the human body.

How does antibiotic chloramphenicol inhibit protein synthesis?

Chloramphenicol inhibits microbial protein synthesis by binding to the 50 S subunit of the 70 S ribosome and inhibiting the action of peptidyl transferase, thus preventing peptide bond formation. This mechanism also prevents the binding of aminoacyl transfer RNA to the peptidyl transferase active site.

What is the mechanism of action of aminoglycoside antibiotics?

The aminoglycosides primarily act by binding to the aminoacyl site of 16S ribosomal RNA within the 30S ribosomal subunit, leading to misreading of the genetic code and inhibition of translocation [3,4].

How does tetracycline inhibit protein synthesis?

The tetracyclines, which were discovered in the 1940s, are a family of antibiotics that inhibit protein synthesis by preventing the attachment of aminoacyl-tRNA to the ribosomal acceptor (A) site.

What is the mechanism of action of antibiotics?

Antibiotics commonly block biochemical pathways important for bacteria. Many bacteria make a cell wall to protect themselves. The antibiotic penicillin blocks the biochemical processes that build the cell wall. Consequently, the growing bacteria become unable to make cell walls and die easily.

How tetracycline and chloramphenicol inhibit protein synthesis in bacteria?

Tetracyclines inhibit bacterial protein synthesis by interfering with the binding of aminoacyl-tRNA molecules to bacterial ribosomes. Peptidyl transferase is inhibited by chloramphenicol.

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