What are the 4 macrolide antibiotics?

What are the 4 macrolide antibiotics?

Macrolides are a class of antibiotic that includes erythromycin, roxithromycin, azithromycin and clarithromycin. They are useful in treating respiratory, skin, soft tissue, sexually transmitted, H. pylori and atypical mycobacterial infections.

Do macrolides cover anaerobes?

The macrolide antibiotics are generally active against strict anaerobes. They are also effective against chlamydia, Legionella pneumophila and mycoplasma, against which many types of antibiotics, including β-lactams, are ineffective.

Is azithromycin second generation?

Azithromycin, a second-generation macrolide antibiotic.

What bacteria is resistant to macrolides?

Macrolides, Lincosamides, and Their Spectrum of Activity Gram-negative bacilli are generally resistant, with some important exceptions (i.e., Bordetella pertussis, Campylobacter, Chlamydia, Helicobacter, and Legionella species).

Is azithromycin a macrolide?

Azithromycin and clarithromycin are derivatives of the older macrolide antibiotic erythromycin. They are used in the treatment of a variety of infections, including community-acquired respiratory tract infections and mycobacterial infections.

Is ciprofloxacin a macrolide?

Zithromax Z-PAK (azithromycin) and Cipro (ciprofloxacin) are antibiotics used to treat susceptible bacterial infections. Zithromax and Cipro belong to different antibiotic classes. Zithromax is a macrolide antibiotic and Cipro is a quinolone antibiotic.

Does azithromycin have anaerobic coverage?

It demonstrates a broad spectrum of activity against many aerobic and anaerobic Gram-positive species, and also inhibits a number of important aerobic and anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria.

What is unique about macrolides?

Unlike penicillin, macrolides have been shown to be effective against Legionella pneumophila, mycoplasma, mycobacteria, some rickettsia, and chlamydia. Macrolides are not to be used on nonruminant herbivores, such as horses and rabbits.

What are advanced macrolides?

Abstract. The azalide antibiotic azithromycin and the newer macrolides, such as clarithromycin, dirithromycin and roxithromycin, can be regarded as ‘advanced-generation’ macrolides compared with erythromycin, the first macrolide used clinically as an antibiotic.

What causes the resistance to macrolides?

Two principal mechanisms of resistance to macrolides have been identified in Gram-positive bacteria. Erythromycin-resistant methylase is encoded by erm genes. Resultant structural changes to rRNA prevent macrolide binding and allow synthesis of bacterial proteins to continue.

Why is E coli resistant to macrolides?

Like most gram-negative organisms, the Enterobacteriaceae family is inherently resistant to low erythromycin A levels, probably due to the outlet pump mechanism. Macrolides contain a 14- to 16-membered lactone ring that combines with various sugars to form a key group that inhibits bacterial translation (7).

Which is better erythromycin or azithromycin?

Conclusions: Azithromycin stimulates antral activity similar to erythromycin and moreover has a longer duration of effect. However, unlike erythromycin, azithromycin does not have significant drug-drug interactions and maybe a potential new medication for the treatment of gastroparesis and gastrointestinal dysmotility.