What are the presentations of organophosphate poisoning?

What are the presentations of organophosphate poisoning?

The typical toxidrome in organophosphate (OP) poisoning comprises of the Salivation, Lacrimation, Urination, Defecation, Gastric cramps, Emesis (SLUDGE) symptoms.

What is the most common source of organophosphate poisoning?

Organophosphate poisoning occurs most commonly as a suicide attempt in farming areas of the developing world and less commonly by accident. Exposure can be from drinking, breathing in the vapors, or skin exposure.

How can diagnosis of organophosphate poisoning be confirmed?

In general, intact organophosphates cannot be detected in the blood due to rapid hydrolysis by the liver. Therefore, the most commonly used test to confirm acute organophosphate poisoning is measurement of plasma cholinesterase activity.

What is organophosphate poisoning PDF?

Definition. Organophosphate poisoning occurs after dermal, respiratory, or oral exposure to either organophosphate pesticides (e.g., chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, malathion, parathion) or nerve agents (e.g., tabun, sarin), causing inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at nerve synapses.

What is cholinesterase test?

Definition. Serum cholinesterase is a blood test that looks at levels of 2 substances that help the nervous system work properly. They are called acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase. Your nerves need these substances to send signals. Acetylcholinesterase is found in nerve tissue and red blood cells.

Why atropine is used in OP poisoning?

Atropine competitively blocks the effects of acetylcholine, including excess acetylcholine due to organophosphorus poisoning, at muscarinic cholinergic receptors on smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, secretory gland cells, and in peripheral autonomic ganglia and the central nervous system.

What are sources of organophosphate?

Organophosphates (OP) are chemical substances produced by the process of esterification between phosphoric acid and alcohol. Organophosphates can undergo hydrolysis with the liberation of alcohol from the ester bond. These chemicals are the main components of herbicides, pesticides, and insecticides.

What is a normal cholinesterase level?

Normal Results Typically, normal pseudocholinesterase values range between 8 and 18 units per milliliter (U/mL) or 8 and 18 kilounits per liter (kU/L). Note: Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk to your provider about the meaning of your specific test results.