What is AMPK made of?
What is AMPK made of?
AMPK is an heterotrimeric enzyme composed of a catalytic α-subunit and regulatory β and γ subunits. The α and β-subunits each exist in two isoforms (α1; α2 and β1; β2), and the γ subunit in 3 isoforms (γ 1; γ 2 and γ3). The γ subunit contains two pairs of Bateman (CBS) domains that bind AMP and ATP.
Is AMPK a protein?
Structure. AMPK is a heterotrimeric protein complex that is formed by α, β, and γ subunits. Each of these three subunits takes on a specific role in both the stability and activity of AMPK.
What binds to AMPK?
In vitro analysis reveals that IQGAP1 binds directly to the α1 subunit of AMPK. In addition, we observed a direct interaction between IQGAP1 and CaMKK2, which is mediated by the IQ domain of IQGAP1. Both CaMKK2 and AMPK associate with IQGAP1 in cells.
What type of kinase is AMPK?
serine/threonine kinase family
AMPK belongs to the serine/threonine kinase family and plays crucial role in glucose homeostasis (Towler & Hardie, 2007). AMPK gets activated due to depleting cellular energy levels and its activation is followed by alteration in several metabolic pathways to restore ATP (Carling, 2004).
How is AMPK produced?
The AMPK complex is activated by phosphorylation on Thr172 in the activation loop of the catalytic (α) subunit by an upstream kinase (FIG. 1). The discovery that one of the upstream kinases for AMPK is the tumour suppressor LKB1 provided a direct connection between cancer and metabolism42,43,57.
What is a AMPK activator?
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activators derived from natural products are promising agents for cardiovascular drug development owning to regulatory effects on physiological processes and diverse cardiometabolic disorders.
What is the function of AMPK?
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a key role as a master regulator of cellular energy homeostasis. The kinase is activated in response to stresses that deplete cellular ATP supplies such as low glucose, hypoxia, ischemia, and heat shock.
Where is AMPK located?
AMPK is present in the nucleus and cytoplasm; however, the mechanisms that regulate the intracellular localization of AMPK are poorly understood. We have now identified several factors that control the distribution of AMPK.
What is mTOR and AMPK?
mTOR and AMPK are considered master regulators of cell metabolism. Their activation is directly linked to the regulation of cellular metabolism (mitochondria homeostasis and central carbon metabolism), growth (protein synthesis) and survival (autophagy and cell death pathways).
What is the biological effect of AMPK activation on metabolism?
The effect of AMPK activation is to rewire metabolism to decrease anabolic processes (that is, ATP consumption) and increase catabolism (that is, ATP production) to restore a more favourable energy balance. Downstream substrates are grouped by biological functions.