## What is backward facing step flow?

Backward Facing Step (BFS) is widely known for its application in the studies on turbulence in internal flows. The flow separation is caused due to the sudden changes in the geometry. This creates a zone of re-circulation and a point of flow reattachment.

What causes turbulent flow in pipes?

Turbulent flow occurs when the Reynolds number exceeds 4000. Eddy currents are present within the flow and the ratio of the internal roughness of the pipe to the internal diameter of the pipe needs to be considered to be able to determine the friction factor.

What are the conditions for turbulent flow?

Turbulent flow tends to occur at higher velocities, low viscosity, and at higher characteristic linear dimensions. If the Reynolds number is greater than Re > 3500, the flow is turbulent. Irregularity: The flow is characterized by the irregular movement of particles of the fluid.

### What are the two main causes of turbulent flow?

Turbulence is a fluid flow in which layers mix together via eddies and swirls. It has two main causes. First, any obstruction or sharp corner, such as in a faucet, creates turbulence by imparting velocities perpendicular to the flow. Second, high speeds cause turbulence.

What is forward facing step?

Introduction. The two-dimensional forward-facing step (FFS) is a heuristic geometric simplification for studying the inception and propagation of fluid instabilities for prismatic bodies.

What is the recirculation zone?

A recirculation zone is a vortex and an eddy is a vortex. Just like a tornado is a vortex. A stream can have an eddy field caused by rocks, and a recirculation zone too. The eddies flowing with the stream can affect the particles in the recirculation zone by running into the outer edges of the recirculation zone.

#### How does turbulent flow affect pressure?

This is best demonstrated by the fact that in turbulent flow, the flow rate is proportional to the square root of the pressure gradient, whereas in laminar flow, flow rate is directly proportional to the pressure gradient. This means that to double the flow, the pressure across the tube must be quadrupled.

Where does turbulent flow occur?

Turbulent flow also occurs in large arteries at branch points, in diseased and narrowed (stenotic or partially obstructed) arteries (see figure below), and across stenotic heart valves.

Does turbulent flow increase pressure?

When plotting a pressure-flow relationship (see figure to right), turbulence increases the perfusion pressure required to drive a given flow. Alternatively, at a given perfusion pressure, turbulence leads to a decrease in flow.

## Why is rear facing important?

A rear-facing car seat will absorb most of the crash forces and supports the head, neck and spine. When children ride forward-facing, their heads – which for toddlers are disproportionately large and heavy – are thrown forward, possibly resulting in spine and head injuries.

Is rear facing better?

Research suggests that rear-facing seats are effective at protecting babies and young children in all types of collision. Typically, rear impact collisions occur at slower speeds, and mainly result in damage to the vehicle. This means that the risk of your child being injured is less than in a frontal impact collision.