What is dysmenorrhea PDF?
What is dysmenorrhea PDF?
Dysmenorrhea, painful menstruation, is one of the most common gynecologic disorders. It is the greatest single cause of lost work and school days among young women. Dysmenorrhea may be primary, with no associated organic pathology, or secondary, with demonstrable pathology.
What is primary dysmenorrhea?
Primary dysmenorrhea. This occurs when you first start your period and continues throughout your life. It is usually life-long. It can cause severe and frequent menstrual cramping from severe and abnormal uterine contractions.
How painful is primary dysmenorrhea?
Primary dysmenorrhea is the name for common menstrual cramps that come back over and over again (recurrent) and aren’t due to other diseases. Pain usually begins one or two days before you get your period or when bleeding actual starts. You may feel pain ranging from mild to severe in the lower abdomen, back or thighs.
What is the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea?
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. NSAIDs are the most common treatment for both primary and secondary dysmenorrhea. They decrease menstrual pain by decreasing intrauterine pressure and lowering prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) levels in menstrual fluid.
What causes primary dysmenorrhea?
Primary dysmenorrhea is the cramping pain that comes before or during a period. This pain is caused by natural chemicals called prostaglandins that are made in the lining of the uterus. Prostaglandins cause the muscles and blood vessels of the uterus to contract.
What are the risk factors for primary dysmenorrhea?
Risk factors for primary dysmenorrhea include the following:
- Early age at menarche (< 12 years)
- Heavy or prolonged menstrual flow.
- Positive family history.
Can primary dysmenorrhea cause infertility?
While dysmenorrhea does not affect fertility, it may be symptomatic of a fertility issue. Most women with dysmenorrhea have primary dysmenorrhea, which is caused by natural pelvic pain during menstruation. This type of dysmenorrhea is not associated with fertility.
How long does primary dysmenorrhea last?
Primary dysmenorrhea is the most common kind of dysmenorrhea. Cramping pain in the lower abdomen (belly) can start from 1–2 days before your period begins and can last 2–4 days.
What are the causes of primary dysmenorrhea?
Primary dysmenorrhea is thought to be caused by excessive levels of prostaglandins, hormones that make your uterus contract during menstruation and childbirth. The pain results from the release of these hormones when the lining (endometrium) is sloughing off during your menstrual period.
How can we prevent dysmenorrhea?
Lifestyle and home remedies
- Exercise regularly. Physical activity, including sex, helps ease menstrual cramps for some women.
- Use heat. Soaking in a hot bath or using a heating pad, hot water bottle or heat patch on your lower abdomen might ease menstrual cramps.
- Try dietary supplements.
- Reduce stress.