What is ketone body metabolism?

What is ketone body metabolism?

Ketone metabolism consists of the oxidation and utilization of ketone bodies by mitochondria, especially in organs with high energy demand. This process produces NADH and FADH2 for the electron transport chain and delivers acetyl CoA for gluconeogenesis.

Can myocardium use ketone bodies?

Failing myocardium exhibits impaired utilization of free fatty acids and glucose, which are major substrates for myocardial energy production. Ketone bodies normally provide a modest contribution to energy balance, but serum concentrations of ketone bodies are elevated in heart failure.

How do ketones affect the heart?

Notably, ketones became the major fuel source for the heart at 2.0 mM βOHB (at both low or high fatty acid concentrations), with the elevated ketone oxidation rates markedly increasing tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle activity, producing a large amount of reducing equivalents and finally, increasing myocardial oxygen …

What are the 4 types of ketones?

Under these circumstances, acetyl-CoA is diverted to the formation of acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and their spontaneous breakdown product, acetone, are known as ketone bodies. The ketone bodies are released by the liver into the blood.

Why does the heart need ketone bodies?

Ketone bodies (β-hydroxybutyrate; acetoacetate) are important energetic substrates. They also act as metabolic signals. Ketone bodies are important fuels for the heart. Cardiac ketone body metabolism is altered in cardiac disease.

Does the heart metabolize fatty acids?

Abstract. The heart is known for its ability to produce energy from fatty acids (FA) because of its important beta-oxidation equipment, but it can also derive energy from several other substrates including glucose, pyruvate, and lactate. The cardiac ATP store is limited and can assure only a few seconds of beating.

What are the 3 types of ketones?

The three ketone bodies synthesized in the liver from acetyl-CoA are acetoacetate, β-hydroxybutyrate, and acetone. Acetyl-CoA is converted to acetoacetate by two metabolic pathways, and acetoacetate is then metabolized to β-hydroxybutyrate or acetone.

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