What is tolerogenic phenotype?

What is tolerogenic phenotype?

In contrast, tolerogenic DCs exploit several immunosuppressive mechanisms to induce tolerance (Figure 2). Tolerogenic DCs often display an immature or semi-mature phenotype that is characterized by low expression of co-stimulatory and MHC molecules and altered cytokine production.

What are tolerogenic dendritic cells?

Tolerogenic dendritic cells (a. k. a. tol-DCs, tDCs, or DCregs) are heterogenous pool of dendritic cells with immuno-suppressive properties, priming immune system into tolerogenic state against various antigens.

What are tolerogenic antigens?

Tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells (APCs) are attractive agents for the treatment of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases that are mediated, at least in part, by antigen-specific autoreactive T cells.

What is a tolerogenic immune response?

Tolerogenic therapy aims to induce immune tolerance where there is pathological or undesirable activation of the normal immune response.

What does tolerogenic mean?

capable of producing immunological tolerance
Medical Definition of tolerogenic : capable of producing immunological tolerance tolerogenic antigens.

What is tolerogenic cell death?

The tolerogenic effect of cell death depends on many factors, including the absence of T cell help, the location of the dying cells (which in part dictates their engulfment by distinct dendritic cell (DC) subtypes), the maturation state of the DC, the production of immunosuppressive factors (such as transforming growth …

What is neo antigen?

Listen to pronunciation. (NEE-oh-AN-tih-jen) A new protein that forms on cancer cells when certain mutations occur in tumor DNA. Neoantigens may play an important role in helping the body make an immune response against cancer cells.

How is neoantigen formed?

Neoantigens are mainly tumor-specific antigens generated by mutations in tumor cells, which are only expressed in tumor cells (11). Neoantigens can also be produced by viral infection, alternative splicing and gene rearrangement (12–14).

What are neo vaccines?

Neo-antigens are cancer-specific antigens, which develop from somatic mutations in the cancer cell genome that can be highly immunogenic and are not subjected to central tolerance.

What does a neoantigen do?

A new protein that forms on cancer cells when certain mutations occur in tumor DNA. Neoantigens may play an important role in helping the body make an immune response against cancer cells.

What is neoantigen based immunotherapy?

Neoantigens are highly immunogenic as they are not expressed in normal tissues. They can activate CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to generate immune response and have the potential to become new targets of tumor immunotherapy. The development of bioinformatics technology has accelerated the identification of neoantigens.

What is a tolerogenic dendritic cell?

Figure 3 Human tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) are induced by various immunosuppressive drugs and mediators. Immuno-activating and -inhibitory surface molecules as well as secreted signaling molecules are demonstrated.

Are dendritic cells the key to tolerance re-establishing?

Dendritic cells (DCs) as key players in controlling immune responses by either inducing immunity or establishing tolerance through interaction with multiple immune cells seem to be excellent candidates for the re-establishment of permanent antigen-specific tolerance.

What are the characteristics of tolerogenic CDs?

Tolerogenic DCs often display an immature or semi-mature phenotype with characteristically low expression of costimulatory (e.g. CD80, CD86) and MHC molecules on their surface. Tolerogenic DCs also produce different cytokines as mature DCs (e.g. anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10,…

What is a tolerogenic DC?

Tolerogenic DCs often display an immature or semi-mature phenotype with characteristically low expression of costimulatory (e.g. CD80, CD86) and MHC molecules on their surface.

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